Ectopic colonization of oral bacteria in the intestine drives TH1 cell induction and inflammation.

Atarashi K et al. Science. 2017 Oct 20;358(6361):359-365. Intestinal colonization by bacteria of oral origin has been correlated with several negative health outcomes, including inflammatory bowel disease. However, a causal role of oral bacteria ectopically colonizing the intestine remains unclear. Using gnotobiotic techniques, we show that strains of Klebsiellaspp. isolated from the salivary microbiota are strong inducers […]

Read more

Gut Microbiome Function Predicts Response to Anti-integrin Biologic Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

Ananthakrishnan AN et al., Cell Host Microbe. 2017 May 10;21(5):603-610.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2017.04.010. The gut microbiome plays a central role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) pathogenesis and propagation. To determine whether the gut microbiome may predict responses to IBD therapy, we conducted a prospective study with Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) patients initiating anti-integrin therapy (vedolizumab). Disease […]

Read more

Designing fecal microbiota transplant trials that account for differences in donor stool efficacy.

Olesen, S.W., et al. Stat Methods Med Res. 2017 Jan 1:962280216688502 Fecal microbiota transplantation is a highly effective intervention for patients suffering from recurrent Clostridium difficile, a common hospital-acquired infection. Fecal microbiota transplantation’s success as a therapy for C. difficile has inspired interest in performing clinical trials that experiment with fecal microbiota transplantation as a therapy for […]

Read more

Profiling Living Bacteria Informs Preparation of Fecal Microbiota Transplantations.

Chu, N.D., et al., PLoS One. 2017 Jan 26;12(1):e0170922. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170922 Fecal microbiota transplantation is a compelling treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections, with potential applications against other diseases associated with changes in gut microbiota. But variability in fecal bacterial communities-believed to be the therapeutic agent-can complicate or undermine treatment efficacy. To understand the effects of transplant […]

Read more

Mechanisms of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, is characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation due to a complex interaction of genetic determinants, disruption of mucosal barriers, aberrant inflammatory signals, loss of tolerance, and environmental triggers. Importantly, the incidence of pediatric IBD is rising, particularly in children younger than 10 years. In this review, […]

Read more

Top