Ectopic colonization of oral bacteria in the intestine drives TH1 cell induction and inflammation.

Atarashi K et al. Science. 2017 Oct 20;358(6361):359-365. Intestinal colonization by bacteria of oral origin has been correlated with several negative health outcomes, including inflammatory bowel disease. However, a causal role of oral bacteria ectopically colonizing the intestine remains unclear. Using gnotobiotic techniques, we show that strains of Klebsiellaspp. isolated from the salivary microbiota are strong inducers […]

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Designing fecal microbiota transplant trials that account for differences in donor stool efficacy

by Scott Olesen Microbes appear to be involved in a complicated interaction with their human hosts, protecting us from some diseases and possibly helping to cause others. Gut microbiota are suspected to be involved in inflammatory bowel disease, a condition where the human body’s immune system attacks its own digestive system. Inflammatory bowel disease, or […]

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Mechanisms of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, is characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation due to a complex interaction of genetic determinants, disruption of mucosal barriers, aberrant inflammatory signals, loss of tolerance, and environmental triggers. Importantly, the incidence of pediatric IBD is rising, particularly in children younger than 10 years. In this review, […]

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CARD9 impacts colitis by altering gut microbiota metabolism of tryptophan into aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands

Complex interactions between the host and the gut microbiota govern intestinal homeostasis but remain poorly understood. Here we reveal a relationship between gut microbiota and caspase recruitment domain family member 9 (CARD9), a susceptibility gene for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that functions in the immune response against microorganisms. CARD9 promotes recovery from colitis by promoting […]

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Functional genomics identifies negative regulatory nodes controlling phagocyte oxidative burst

The phagocyte oxidative burst, mediated by Nox2 NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species, confers host defense against a broad spectrum of bacterial and fungal pathogens. Loss-of-function mutations that impair function of the Nox2 complex result in a life-threatening immunodeficiency, and genetic variants of Nox2 subunits have been implicated in pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Thus, […]

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