Ectopic colonization of oral bacteria in the intestine drives TH1 cell induction and inflammation.

Atarashi K et al. Science. 2017 Oct 20;358(6361):359-365. Intestinal colonization by bacteria of oral origin has been correlated with several negative health outcomes, including inflammatory bowel disease. However, a causal role of oral bacteria ectopically colonizing the intestine remains unclear. Using gnotobiotic techniques, we show that strains of Klebsiellaspp. isolated from the salivary microbiota are strong inducers […]

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Small-molecule studies identify CDK8 as a regulator of IL-10 in myeloid cells.

Johannessen L., et al. Nat Chem Biol. 2017 Oct;13(10):1102-1108. doi: 10.1038/nchembio.2458 Enhancing production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a promising strategy to suppress pathogenic inflammation. To identify new mechanisms regulating IL-10 production, we conducted a phenotypic screen for small molecules that enhance IL-10 secretion from activated dendritic cells. Mechanism-of-action studies using a prioritized hit from […]

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Gut Microbiome Function Predicts Response to Anti-integrin Biologic Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

Ananthakrishnan AN et al., Cell Host Microbe. 2017 May 10;21(5):603-610.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2017.04.010. The gut microbiome plays a central role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) pathogenesis and propagation. To determine whether the gut microbiome may predict responses to IBD therapy, we conducted a prospective study with Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) patients initiating anti-integrin therapy (vedolizumab). Disease […]

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Prediction of complicated disease course for children newly diagnosed with Crohn’s disease: a multicentre inception cohort study.

Kugathasan S., et al., Lancet. 2017 Apr 29;389(10080):1710-1718. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30317-3 Stricturing and penetrating complications account for substantial morbidity and health-care costs in paediatric and adult onset Crohn’s disease. Validated models to predict risk for complications are not available, and the effect of treatment on risk is unknown. METHODS: We did a prospective inception cohort study of paediatric […]

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A Microbiome Foundation for the Study of Crohn’s Disease.

D. Gevers et al., Cell Host Microbe. 2017 Mar 8;21(3):301-304. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2017.02.012 Our 2014 study published in Cell Host & Microbe, “The Treatment-Naive Microbiome in New-Onset Crohn’s Disease,” was designed to improve our understanding of the microbiome’s role in Crohn’s disease by studying a unique, well-suited cohort and sample set. This commentary provides a hindsight perspective of […]

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